Central Processing Unit(CPU)

Definition of Central Processing Unit:

Central Processing Unit- Teche Programmer
Central Processing Unit(CPU)

A Central Processing Unit commonly recognized as CPU is an essential part of any computer because of which computer regulates the flow of data from input devices to the output devices.

A CPU processes the data which are taken from the user through the input devices such as keyboard, mouse, scanner and produces the result on the output devices such as monitor, projector, printer. A CPU consists of 3 parts which are memory, ALU, and a CU which are clarified below:


The message (instructions and data) required is stored in memory. The computer’s memory is developed out of semi-conductor elements and stores information in binary form.

Binary information consists of two symbols 0 and 1, due to which it is known as binary digits (bits). A memory of a computer can be partitioned into discrete parts such as registers, Multi-level caches, Main memory, and secondary memory, etc..

A memory has mainly subdivided into parts that is a volatile memory and a non-volatile memory:

Volatile memory:

A volatile memory is a type of memory that loses its data after the power is switched off. Therefore, we can say that a volatile memory can store data as long as it gets the power.

When the power is disconnected from the computer the volatile memory loses its stored data. Example of a volatile memory is a RAM. A RAM is a Random Access Memory (RAM) that is used to store the newly used data.

Non Volatile memory

A non-volatile memory is contrary to the volatile memory because of its working. Thus it can be said that the data stored in the computer doesn’t lose it after the power is switched off.

In a non-volatile memory a user can store the data as long as they need to store. Thus a non-volatile memory can be used to store data permanently.

An example of a non-volatile memory is a ROM. A ROM is a Read-Only Memory that can be used to store the data which is rarely changed during the life cycle of a system. Hence it can be said that ROM is frequently

ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit)

An ALU or an Arithmetic Logic Unit is a physical circuitry available inside a computer’s CPU. This can be used to perform various arithmetic and logic operations due to which it is known as an ALU.

It can solve all types of basic to complex operations on a computer. ALU can perform various arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication.

Logic operations performed by an ALU are AND operation, OR operation and a NOT operation. Thus the data processed in the CPU are in the Binary form. Thus the data within the CPU are in the form of 0 and 1 which is calculated through performing Arithmetic and logic operations in the ALU.

CU(Control Unit)

The CU or a Control Unit coordinates the actions of the diverse components of a computer. The CU instructs the computer for performing various operations such as to respond to input devices, output devices, ALU, and memory.

CU plays a major role in controlling the computer system for better working. A Control Unit works by receiving input instructions to which it converts into control signals, which are then sent to the central processor.

The computer’s processor then tells the hardware what operations to perform. The functions that a CU performs are dependent on the type of the CPU because of the architecture of CPU which varies from manufacturer to manufacturer.

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