Computer Basics and Its Components

Introduction to Computer Basics:

In this part of the Teche Programmer, we are going to learn about the basics of the computer such as hardware, software also its advantages and disadvantages.

Definition – Computer Basics:


The computer may be a programmable finite state machinery that gives exact arithmetic and logic processes. The computer is stated to be programmable because it’s assigned to execute tasks within its competence. 

Computer Hardware:

The physical circuitry and components of a computer are identified as hardware. Hardware can be categorized as basic: 

Basic components of computer system
Basic Components of a computer system 

Input Unit: The input is the device used to enter data and directives into the computer. The data read from the input devices stored in the computer’s memory.

Some typical input devices are: keyboard, mouse, joystick, etc.

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): The ALU performs arithmetic and logic operation. Thus ALU is utilized to do all types of arithmetic and logic problems in the computer. 

Control Unit: The CU coordinates the actions of the diverse components of a computer. The ALU and the CU together constitute the CPU(Control Processing Unit).

The CPUs are built-in microprocessors. Some popular microprocessors that are used such as Intel Core i5, Core i7, ARM Cortex A8, etc.

Memory: The message (instructions and data) needed to be stored as a result we use memory. The computer’s memory is formed out of semi-conductor elements and stores information in binary form.

Binary information consists of two symbols 0 and 1, due to this they are known as binary digits (bits). The memory of a computer can be partitioned into discrete parts such as registers, Multi- level caches, Main memory and secondary memory, etc.

Output Unit: The output is the device used to show the instruction generated by the computer. For example output devices are monitors, printers, plotters, etc..

Computer Software:

It can process the processing of any data which is given through input devices using a set of instructions as a result it is known as a software. Hence we can conclude that software is a set of instructions that can process data according to the requirement of the user.

System software:

It’s a computer program designed to run a computer’s hardware and application programs because of which a computer processes the data. System software integrates the activities such as the functions of the hardware and the software.

Hence its an interface between the computer and the user. The best-recognized example for a system software can be an operating system that regulates all programs in a computer and it is also an interface between the user and the computer.

Application software:

It’s a computer software package due to which the computer performs a preferred function. Such as for a user or, sometimes, for an additional application.

Undoubtedly the program is the set of operations that runs the appliance for the user. Because of which the computer works properly. 

Advantages and Disadvantages of computer – Computer Basics:

Advantages of Computer:

Multitasking: It is one of the major advantages of a computer due to which it can perform multiple tasks at a time. Computers can perform various tasks simultaneously such as you can play music, play games, and download anything. at a time in a single computer at the same time.

Speed: The computer is the fastest device because of the RAM and processor present within the CPU. It can do any task within a second or less due to the processor. Such as it can deal with large and compound problems within a second. 

Storage: Computer is able to store a large amount of data which is not possible for humans because of its memory unit present in the CPU. Example: a database containing the records of any organization containing more than 10 lakh people. 

Accuracy: A computer can perform any type of operation with maximum accuracy with fast speed because of the processor.

Disadvantages of Computer:

Thinking ability: The computer doesn’t have thinking ability because of which it can’t take decisions on its own. It can take decisions because of the inputs given by the user.

Feelings: The computer doesn’t have any feelings as humans because of this computer takes inputs.

Virus and malware: Viruses and malware are the computer programs which are built to harm the computer system because of that computer doesn’t works properly.

They can reduce the processing speed of the computer system and its performance because they can affect the whole computer system. 

Working: Computer cannot work on its own it needs a user or an operator which can operate the computer system because of this they contain Input system within them.

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