What are Operators in C?

What are Operators in C? An operator is an image given to an activity that works on some worth. It advises the PC to play out some scientific or legitimate controls.

Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used to carry out primary arithmetic operations. Tasks like expansion, deduction, duplication, division, and modulo division.
C helps 5 arithmetic operators.

Operator Description

  • Unary plus or binary addition
  • Unary minus or binary subtraction
  • Multiplication
    / Division
    % Modulo division (Evaluates the rest)

Necessary Observe: There is no such thing as an exponential operator in C programming language. Many newbies consider ^ (hat image) as an exponential operator. Nevertheless, ^ is a bitwise XOR operator.

Unary plus and unary minus

The + and – arithmetic operators displays in two variants unary plus/minus and binary addition/subtraction. Unary plus and minus takes a single operand and used to change the signal of an actual or integer sort.

For instance:

a = -5; // a incorporates -5
b = +10.65; // b incorporates +10.65
c = -a; // c incorporates -(-5) => +5
d = -b; // d incorporates –(+10.65) => -10.65

By default, each actual or integer sort is constructive. Subsequently, the use of a unary plus operator is elective. Means b = +10.65; is equal to b = 10.65;.

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Binary arithmetic operators

Paired number juggling administrators are utilized to perform fundamental number-crunching activities. It acknowledges two operands.

Suppose two integer variables x and y with preliminary values
int x=10, y=6;

After performing following binary arithmetic operations.

x + y = 16
y – x = 4
x * y = 60
y / x = 1 (Integer division evaluates to integer trimming fractional half)
x % y = 4 (The rest of the integer division)
Integer division

In pc, programming divisions are carried out in another way. Apparently there are two varieties of division.

Integer division
Actual division

C performs integer division if each operands are integer sort. Integer division all the time evaluates to an integer discarding the fractional half.

C performs actual division if any of the 2 operands are actual sort (both float or double). Actual division evaluates to an actual worth containing integer in addition to fractional half.

Contemplate the under division desk for a transparent view of division in C.

Operation Consequence Division sort
5 / 2 2 Integer division
5.0 / 2 2.5 Actual division
5 / 2.0 2.5 Actual division
5.0 / 2.0 2.5 Actual division
Modulo division

Modulo division assesses the rest in the wake of performing division of two numbers. In C programming, we do modulo division using % administrator. Numerous writings alludes modulo administrator as modulus administrator.

Contemplate the under modulo division desk for a transparent view of modulo division operations in C.

Operation Consequence
8 % 2 0
5 % 3 2
3 % 7 3
-3 % 7 -3
5 % -2 1
-8 % -3 -2

2.5 % 2 Error
8 % 2.5 Error
5.0 % 2.5 Error

Necessary word:

Modulo division is barely doable with integer operands. It causes compilation error with float sorts.
The modulo operator returns the signal of the primary operand.

The project operator is used to assign worth to a variable (reminiscence location). There’s a single project operator = in C. It evaluates the expression on the proper facet of = image and assigns evaluated worth to left facet the variable.

For instance think about the beneath project desk.

OperationDescription
x = 10Assigns 10 to variable x
y = (5 + 4) / 2Evaluates expression (5+4)/2 and assign outcome to y
z = x + yEvaluates x + y and assign outcome to z
5 = xError, you can’t re-assign a worth to a relentless
10 = 10Error, you can’t re-assign a worth to a relentless

The RHS of the project operator has to be a relentless, expression, or variable. Whereas LHS has to be a variable (legitimate reminiscence location).

Shorthand project operator

C helps a brief variant of project operator known as compound project or shorthand project. Shorthand project operator combines one of many arithmetic or bitwise operators with project operator.

For instance, think about following C statements.

int a = 5;
a = a + 2;

The above expression a = a + 2 is equal to a += 2.

Equally, there are lots of shorthand project operators. Under is an inventory of shorthand project operators in C.

Shorthand project operatorInstanceWhich means
+=a += 10a = a + 10
-=a -= 10a = a – 10
*=a *= 10a = a * 10
/=a /= 10a = a / 10
%=a %= 10a = a % 10
&=a &= 10a = a & 10
|=a |= 10a = a | 10
^=a ^= 10a = a ^ 10
~=a ~= 10a = a ~ 10
<<=a <<= 10a = a << 10
>>=a >>= 10a = a >> 10

In actual life, we regularly evaluate two completely different portions and relying on their relation, we make some choices. For instance, we evaluate the value of two gadgets, the age of two individuals, and so forth. Relational operators help these comparisons in C programming.

We use relational operators to match two constants, variables, or expressions. We usually evaluate two portions of comparable nature. Likewise, relational operators can solely evaluate any two related varieties. It evaluates Boolean worth both true or false relying on their relation. Primarily based on evaluated Boolean consequence we make choices or execute some statements.

In C programming, there isn’t an idea of Boolean values. C represents false with 0 and true with a non-zero integer worth.

C helps six relational operators.

OperatorDescription
>Better than
<Lower than
>=Better than or equal to
<=Lower than or equal to
==Equals to
!=Not equal to

Allow us to show working of every relational operator.

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Suppose xy and z are three integer variables with preliminary values

int x=10, y=5, z=10;

Relational operationsConsequenceDescription
x > y110 > 5 is true, subsequently returns 1
x < y010 < 5 is fake, subsequently returns 0
x >= z110 ≥ 10 is true, subsequently returns 1
x <= y010 ≤ 5 is fake, subsequently returns 0
x == z110 = 10 is true, subsequently returns 1
x != z010 ≠ 10 is fake, subsequently returns 0

You might be free to make use of any non-zero integer worth to characterize true. Nevertheless, C standard specifies to make use of 1 for representing a real worth.

Vital notice: Don’t confuse assignment = operator with relational equals to == operator. Each is completely different and their working mechanism is completely different. Freshmen at all times make this frequent mistake of utilizing = instead of ==. Therefore use these with caution.

Relational operators are good at evaluating two portions. Nonetheless, relational operators don’t assist the comparability of three or extra portions.

For instance, suppose it is advisable to examine vary of a quantity. You want to examine whether or not a quantity n is between 1-100 or not. For that, you should examine two circumstances, first examine if n > 1 lastly examine if n < 100.

We use logical operators to mix two or extra relational expressions as a single relational expression. Logical operators evaluates a Boolean worth (integer in case of C) relying upon the operator used.

C helps three logical operators.

Operator Description
&& Logical AND
|| Logical OR
! Logical-NOT
Logical AND && operator

This is a binary operator. It combines two relational expressions and evaluates 1 (true) if each of the expressions is true in any other case 0 (false).

We use logical AND operator in conditions when two or extra circumstances have to be true for a choice. For instance, “He’s equipped for work if he thinks about C and he has a dominance of more vital than 2 years”. We are able to write the above assertion programmatically as –

if (ability == ‘C’ && expertise >= 2)

//He's eligible for job

Be aware: Do not confuse logical AND & with bitwise AND &.

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Logical-OR || operator

It can also be a binary operator. Logical OR operator is utilized in conditions when a choice is to be taken if any of two circumstances is glad.

It evaluates to 1 (true) if any of the 2 expressions is true in any other case evaluates to 0 (false). Logical OR operators are helpful when both of the 2 relational expressions must be true. For instance – contemplate the assertion “It’s weekend, whether it is Saturday or Sunday”. We are able to write the given assertion programmatically as –

if(at present == Saturday || at present == Sunday)

Be aware: Do not confuse logical OR || with bitwise OR |.

Logical-NOT ! operator

It is a unary operator that takes a single operand and evaluates the complement of its operand expression. It evaluates to 1 (true) if the operand is 0 (false) in any other case evaluates to 0 (false).

We use Bitwise operators to control knowledge at its lowest stage (big stage). Bitwise operators work on every little bit of the information.

Information within the reminiscence (RAM) is organized as a sequence of bytes. Every byte is a bunch of eight consecutive bits. Bitwise operators are helpful when we have to carry out actions on bits of the information.

Bitwise operators work with integer kindThey don’t help float or actual varieties.

C has six Bitwise operators.

OperatorDescription
&Bitwise AND
|Bitwise OR
^Bitwise XOR
~Bitwise complement
<<Bitwise left shift
>>Bitwise proper shift

Bitwise-AND & operator

It is a binary operator. It units every little bit of the resultant worth as 1 if the corresponding bit in each operand is 1.

Suppose a and b are two integer variables with preliminary worth
int a=10, b=11;

Allow us to re-write integers in 8-bit binary illustration

a = 0000 1010
b = 0000 1011

c = a & b
The above expression a & b will consider to 0000 1010 which is 10 in decimal.

a       0000 1010
b       0000 1011
-----------------
a & b   0000 1010

AND operator is used extensively to examine whether or not a particular bit of data is on (1) or off (0).

Vital Word: As a newbie don’t get confused with bitwise AND & with logical AND &&.

Bitwise-OR | operator

It is a binary operator. It units every little bit of the resultant worth as 1 if a corresponding little bit of any of its two operands is 1.

It usually used to set flag bit values.

Suppose a and b are two integer variables with preliminary worth as.
int a=2, b=13;

Allow us to re-write the integer in 8-bit binary illustration.

a = 0000 0010
b = 0000 1101

c = a | b

The above expression a|b will consider to 0000 1111 which is 15 in decimal.

a       0000 0010
b       0000 1101
-----------------
a | b   0000 1111

Vital word: Don’t confuse between bitwise OR | and logical OR || operator.

XOR ^ operator

XOR operator can also be a binary operator. It units every little bit of the resultant worth to 1 at any time when the corresponding bits of the 2 operands differ.

Suppose a and b are two integer variables with preliminary worth as.
int a=6, b=13;

Allow us to re-write the integers in 8-bit binary illustration:

a = 0000 0110
b = 0000 1101

c = a ^ b

The above expression a^b will consider to 0000 1011 which is 11 in decimal.

a       0000 0110
b       0000 1101
-----------------
a ^ b	0000 1011

Vital word: Don’t confuse bitwise XOR ^ operator as an exponential operator. There is no such thing as an exponential operator supported by C.

Complement ~ operator

It is a unary operator. It units every little bit of the resultant worth to 1 if a corresponding little bit of the operand is Zero and vice versa. In different phrases, it flips all bit values.

Suppose a is an integer variable with preliminary worth as.
int a=2;

In 8-bit binary illustration:

a = 0000 0010

c = ~a
The above expression ~a will consider to 1111 1101 which is -3 (Twos complement) in decimal.

a       0000 0010
-----------------
~a      1111 1101

Left shift << operator

It is a binary operator. It’s used to shift bits to left n occasions. Think about the beneath instance:

int a=15;

Which in 8-bit binary will likely be represented as:

a = 0000 1111

c = a << 3;
The above expression a << 3; shifts bits of a thrice to left and evaluates to 0111 1000 which is 120 in decimal.

a       0000 1111
a << 1  0001 1110
a << 2  0011 1100
a << 3  0111 1000

Shifting bits to left causes the insertion of zero from proper and shifting every bit to 1 place left from its present place. The most significant bit (the leftmost bit) is dropped off on each left shift.

Vital wordShifting bits to left can also be equal to multiplying worth by 2. You should use a bitwise left shift operator if it’s worthwhile to multiply a variable by an influence of two.

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Proper shift >> operator

Proper shift bitwise operator is binary operator used to shift bits to proper. Think about the beneath instance:
int a=15;

Which in 8-bit binary will likely be represented as:

a = 0000 1111

c = a >> 3
The above expression a >> 3 shifts bits of variable a thrice proper and can consider to 0000 0001 which is 1 in decimal

a       0000 1111
a >> 1  0000 0111
a >> 2  0000 0011
a >> 3  0000 0001

C solely helps Arithmetic Proper Shift means as an alternative of pushing Zero at MSB it pushes a signal bit. This implies shifting bits to proper causes insertion of Zero or 1 relying on the worth of Most Vital Bit (signal bit).

After every proper shift, the least significant bit (left most bit) is dropped off.

Vital word: Shifting bits to proper is equal to dividing by 2. You should use a bitwise proper shift operator if it’s worthwhile to divide a quantity (unsigned quantity) by energy of two.

In a bitwise proper shift, 1 is inserted from proper if the MSB is 1; in any other case, Zero is inserted from proper. Nevertheless, in case of bitwise left shift at all times Zero is inserted from left.

Increment and Decrement operators are used to increment or decrement worth by 1.

There are two variants of increment/decrement operator.

  • Prefix (pre-increment and pre-decrement)
  • Postfix (post-increment and post-decrement)

Syntax of increment/decrement operator

SyntaxDescriptionInstance
++<variable-name>Pre increment++a
<variable-name>++Publish incrementa++
--<variable-name>Pre decrement--a
<variable-name>--Publish decrementa--

Essential be aware: ++ and -- operators are used with variables. Utilizing ++ or -- with fixed will lead to error. Resembling expressions like 10++(a + b)++ and many others. are invalid and cause a compilation error.

Allow us to contemplate an integer variable int a = 10;. To increment by 1, you need to use both
a = a + 1 (Easy task)
a += 1 (Shorthand assignment)
a++ (Publish increment)
++a (Pre increment)

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Prefix vs Postfix

Each prefix and postfix does an identical process of incrementing/decrementing the worth by 1. Nevertheless, there’s a slight distinction so as to analyze.

Prefix first increment/decrements its worth then returns the end result. Whereas postfix first returns the end-result then increment/decrement the worth.

To know this effectively let’s contemplate an instance program

#embody 

int essential()
{
    int a, b, c;

    a = 10;   // a = 10
    b = ++a;  // a=11, b=11
    c = a++;  // a=12, c=11

    printf("a=%d, b=%d, c=%d", a, b, c);

    return 0;
}

Output of above program is a=12, b=11, c=11. Allow us to perceive the code.

a = 10 Assigns 10 to variable a
b = ++a Since we’ve got used prefix notation. Therefore, first, it increments the worth of a to 11, then assigns the incremented worth of a to b.
c = a++ Right here we’ve got used postfix notation. Therefore, first, it assigns the present worth of an i.e. 11 to c, then increments the worth of a to 12.

Essential be aware: By no means use postfix and prefix operator without delay in any other case it would lead to error. Resembling ++a++++a-- each ends in compilation error.

A conditional operator is a ternary operator used to gauge an expression primarily based on some situation. It’s a alternative of brief if…else statement.

Syntax of conditional operator

<conditional-expression> ? <true-expression> : <false-expression>
  • It accepts three operands, conditional-expression, true-expression, and false-expression.
  • The conditional-expression is adopted by? image, adopted by true-expression. true-expression is adopted by image and false-expression.
  • If conditional-expression is true then true-expression will get evaluated in any other case false-expression. In no case, each of the expressions are evaluated.

The above conditional expression is equal to –


if(conditional-expression)
{
    // true-expression
}
else
{
    // false-expression
}

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Instance program of conditional operator

Take into account the under program to seek out most between two numbers utilizing conditional operator.

#embrace &lt;stdio.h>

int principal()

Within the above program prints, Most are 20. Because the situation (num1 > num2) is fake subsequently false-expression will get evaluated assigning 20 to max.

Observe to be taught – Conditional operator programming exercises and solutions

Vital observe: At all times be at liberty to rework single if...else assertion to conditional operator expression if it makes your code extra readable and clear. Nevertheless, it’s by no means beneficial to rework a nested if…else…if or ladder if…else statement to conditional operator expression.

The order of analysis of operations can alter the ultimate consequence. For instance, take into account evaluating the following expression with none arithmetic rule.

5 + 3 * 4 / 2

If you don’t comply with any particular rule to gauge such expressions, then you definitely most likely result in an ambiguous consequence. Akin to one may suppose it’ll consider both 32 or 11 or 18.5 and many others.

To beat such ambiguity, in arithmetic we comply with BODMAS rule. Equally, in laptop programming, we comply with operator priority and associativity rule.

Priority of operators

The priority of an operator specifies its precedence in comparison with different operators. If an expression includes several types of operators, then the priority of operators specifies the order of analysis every operator.

For instance, take into account the given expression
int x = 5 + 4 * 2;

The results of the above expression are 13 as a substitute of 18. Since * operator has greater priority than + operator. Therefore+ operator is evaluated after * operator.

Now take into account the above expression once more with a slight change
int x = (5 + 4) * 2;
This time results of the above expression are 18. As a result of priority of ( ) operator is greater than * operator. Thus ( ) operator evaluates first to 5 + 4 = 9. Then * operator evaluates to 9 * 2 = 18.

Priority of an operator impacts results of an expression. However, what if two operators have similar priorities? This ambiguity is resolved by the associativity of operators.

Associativity of operators

If an expression accommodates multiple operators with similar priorities. Then operator priority together with its associativity defines the order of analysis of expression.

Operator associativity can both be left-to-right or right-to-left. Means if an expression accommodates two or extra operators of similar priority. Then they’re evaluated in both left to proper or proper to left order.

Contemplate the under-expression
int x = 5 * 4 / 4 % 3;

Within the above expression priority of all three operators are similar. Therefore, the results of expression is ambiguous (if we comply with the sole priority). The consequence can both be 2 or 20 and many others. Nonetheless, the order of analysis ambiguity is resolved if we comply with priority together with associativity rule. All of the three operators are left to properly related, therefore the expression is assured to guage 2.

Contemplate one other operator that associates from right-to-left.
x = y = z;

Within the above expression, the right-most operator is evaluated first, continuing in direction of left. First, the worth z is assigned to y then the worth of y is assigned to x.

Essential be aware: Operators with similar priority have similar associativity.

In C programming compilers comply with operator priority and associativity rule to resolve the order of analysis of operators.

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Operator priority and associativity desk

OperatorDescriptionPriorityAssociativity
()Parentheses1Left to proper
[]Array aspect reference
->Member entry through pointer
.Member entry through object identify
++Postfix increment
Postfix decrement
!Logical NOT operator2Proper to left
~Bitwise complement operator
+Unary plus operator
Unary minus operator
++Prefix Increment
Prefix Decrement
*Indirection operator
sizeof()Dimension of operator
(sort)Kind solid
.*Dereference operator3Left to proper
->*Dereference operator
*Multiply4Left to proper
/Divide
%Modulus
+Binary addition5Left to proper
Binary subtraction
<<Bitwise left shift6Left to proper
>>Bitwise proper shift
<Lower than7Left to proper
<=Lower than or equal to
>Larger than
>=Larger than or equal to
==Equal to8Left to proper
!=Not equal to
&Bitwise AND9Left to proper
^Bitwise XOR10Left to proper
|Bitwise OR11Left to proper
&&Logical AND12Left to proper
||Logical OR13Left to proper
?:Conditional operator14Proper to left
=Easy project15Proper to left
*=Assign product
~=Assign bitwise complement
/=Assign quotient
%=Assign the rest
+=Assign sum
-=Assign distinction
&=Assign bitwise AND
^=Assign bitwise XOR
|=Assign bitwise OR
<<=Assign bitwise left shift
>>=Assign bitwise proper shift
,Comma operator16Left to proper

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